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glossary - i

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Ictal – during a seizure. For example, 'ictal activity' would be brain activity seen on an EEG during a seizure.

Idiopathic epilepsy  – where the cause of someone’s epilepsy is genetic or inherited. This includes inheriting a low seizure threshold or having a genetic condition like Tuberous Sclerosis.

Individual therapeutic concentration - in terms of therapeutic drug monitoring, this is the amount of anti-epileptic drug that is effective for a particular person.

Infantile spasms (also called West Syndrome) – A rare childhood epilepsy syndrome that starts in the first year of life. The child has brief jerks or spasms of the arms, legs or whole body, often in clusters. Some children have problems with learning or behaviour.

Inherited – characteristics that are passed to you from your parents.

Ion channels  – the 'gateways' in the cell membrane which ions pass through when messages are sent from one cell to another.

Ions  – chemicals found in the body that have an electrical charge. Important ions for neurone communication are sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride.