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Occipital lobes – the area at the back of the brain: at the back of your head. The occipital lobes are responsible for our sense of sight: receiving information from our eyes and translating it into what we see around us.

Occipital lobe seizures – focal seizures that start in the occipital lobe. Simple focal seizures from the occipital lobe include seeing flashing lights or coloured patterns, loss of sight or visual hallucinations (seeing things that are not there). Complex focal seizures from this area are rare.

Oestrogen - one of the female hormones that brings about sexual development, menstruation and pregnancy.

Optimal therapy - stopping seizures with the smallest dose of the fewest anti-epileptic drugs with the least side effects.

Orphan drug - a drug that has been developed to treat a rare condition (or 'orphan disease').

Osteoporosis  – a condition where the bones lose calcium and become brittle and can break easily.

Ovulation - part of a woman's menstrual cycle (mid cycle) when an egg is released from the ovary.