facts and statistics
Some facts about seizures
- Most seizures happen suddenly without warning, last a short time (a few seconds or minutes) and stop by themselves.
- Seizures can be different for each person.
- Just knowing that someone has epilepsy does not tell you what their epilepsy is like, or what seizures they have.
- Calling seizures ‘major’ or ‘minor’ does not tell you what happens to the person during the seizure. The names of seizures used on this page describe what happens during the seizure.
- Some people have more than one type of seizure, or their seizures may not fit clearly into the types described on this page. But even if someone's seizures are unique, they usually follow the same pattern each time they happen.
- Not all seizures involve convulsions (jerking or shaking movements). Some people seem vacant, wander around or are confused during a seizure.
- Some people have seizures when they are awake, called 'awake seizures'. Some people have seizures while they are asleep, called 'asleep seizures' (or ‘nocturnal seizures’). The names 'awake' and 'asleep' do not explain the type of seizures, only when they happen.
- Injuries can happen during seizures, but many people don't hurt themselves and don't need to go to hospital or see a doctor.
First aid for all seizures
Seizures can vary from one person to another and how people are affected and how they recover after seizures varies. How you can best help someone during a seizure depends on what type of seizure they have and how it affects them.
About epilepsy and seizures
- Epilepsy is a neurological condition - which means it affects the brain. It is also a physical condition, because the body is affected when someone has a seizure.
- Epilepsy is described as the tendency to have repeated seizures that start in the brain. Epilepsy is usually only diagnosed after the person has had more than one seizure.
- The Greek philosopher Hippocrates (460-377 BC) was the first person to think that epilepsy starts in the brain.
- Anyone can have a seizure if the circumstances are right, but most people do not have seizures under ‘normal conditions’.
- Seizures are sometimes called ‘fits’ or ‘attacks’. Seizures happen when there is a sudden interruption in the way the brain normally works.
- Epilepsy is a variable condition that affects different people in different ways.
- There are over 40 different types of seizure. What seizures look like can vary. For example someone may go ‘blank’ for a couple of seconds, they may wander around and be quite confused, or they may fall to the ground and shake (convulse). So not all seizures involve convulsions.
- Some people are unconscious during their seizures and so they do not remember what happens to them. It can be really useful to have a description of what happened from someone who saw their seizure to help with diagnosis. This is sometimes called an ‘eyewitness account’.
- There are many different causes (reasons) why someone might develop epilepsy. Sometimes a cause for epilepsy can be found (for example a head injury) but sometimes the person’s epilepsy starts ‘out of the blue’ and the cause cannot be found.
Causes of epilepsy
Epilepsy has many possible causes. Because of its complexity, the underlying cause of someone’s epilepsy may not be found. Causes of epilepsy can be put into three main groups: symptomatic, idiopathic and cryptogenic epilepsy.
Some famous people who have had epilepsy include the Roman Emperor Julius Caesar and the artist Vincent Van Gogh. More recently the actor Danny Glover, Rabbi Lionel Blue and rugby player Dean Ryan.
People's experiences of epilepsy
Five people share their experiences of living with epilepsy, how it has affected them and what having epilepsy means to them.
- One in 20 people will have a one-off epileptic seizure at some point in their life (although this does not necessarily mean that they have epilepsy).
- One in 50 people will have epilepsy at some time in their life (not everyone with epilepsy will have it for life).
- Around 87 people are diagnosed with epilepsy every day.
- Over 500,000 people in the UK have epilepsy. That’s about one in every 100 people. There are around 60 million people with epilepsy in the world.
- Up to 5% of people with epilepsy will be affected by flashing lights (called photosensitive epilepsy), so most people with epilepsy do not have seizures triggered by flashing lights.
- Epilepsy can start at any age, but is most commonly diagnosed in people under 20 and people over 65. This is because some causes are more common in young people (such as difficulties at their birth, childhood infections or accidents) and in older people (such as strokes that lead to epilepsy). For some people their epilepsy might ‘go away’ and they stop having seizures. This is called spontaneous remission.
- Epilepsy can be difficult to diagnose and there are a number of different tests that might be done to help with a diagnosis such as an EEG (Electroencephalogram) or an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan.
- Epilepsy is usually treated with medication called anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). AEDs aim to stop seizures from happening, but they do not cure epilepsy.
- With the right AEDs, up to 70% of people with epilepsy could have their seizures controlled (stopped).
- The first AED used to treat epilepsy was phenobarbitone in 1912. There are now over 25 different AEDs available in the UK.
- For people who do not have their seizures controlled with AEDs, surgery may be an option. This can involve removing the part of their brain that causes the seizures.
- Some people may have a form of treatment called Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) therapy to help control their epilepsy. This involves having a special device implanted in their chest that sends regular electrical signals to their brain through the vagus nerve in their neck.
See more about treatment
Types of seizure
There are two main types of seizure, focal and generalised. Whether you, or someone you know, has had a single seizure or has been diagnosed with epilepsy, it may help to identify the type of seizures that are relevant to you, and how they affect you.