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Epilepsy treatment

If you have just been diagnosed with epilepsy, you may have questions about medication and treatment. 


AEDs (anti-epileptic drugs) work by controlling the electrical activity in the brain that causes seizures. They do not cure epilepsy and are not used to stop seizures while they are happening. AEDs work best if they are taken regularly, around the same time each day. Up to 70% of people (7 in 10) could have their seizures fully controlled (stop having seizures) with the right AEDs.

The aim of treatment is to stop all of your seizures with the lowest dose of the fewest number of AEDs and with the least side effects. Usually treatment starts using a single AED at a low dose, which is increased slowly (called titration), until your seizures are controlled. If your seizures are not controlled with this drug, a different AED is usually tried (by adding in the new drug and then slowly withdrawing the first one). If your seizures are not controlled with a single drug, another drug might be added, so that you take two different AEDs each day. 

Hand holding pills

Medication for epilepsy

There are lots of different AEDs and your neurologist will usually choose the AED that is most suitable for the type of seizure you have and your particular situation. 

A mixture of Anti Epileptic Drugs

What are anti-epileptic drugs?

Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are the main type of treatment for most people with epilepsy that aims to stop seizures from happening.

Most AEDs have two names, a generic name and a brand name given by the manufacturer (for example, Nurofen is a brand name of the generic painkiller ibuprofen). Some AEDs have more than one generic version and each version can be given its own name. For some AEDs, different versions of the drug can vary slightly and this could affect seizure control. Once you and your doctors have found an AED which helps to control your seizures, and which suits you, it is recommended that you take the same version of AED consistently with every prescription, whether it is a generic or brand version. This is called ‘consistency of supply’.

If a prescription only has the generic name of the drug, the pharmacist can give any version of the drug with that name. However, if the prescription has the brand name of the drug, the pharmacist has to give that brand. It can be helpful to get your prescription from the same pharmacist each time as some pharmacists keep records of the medication they dispense and can help with questions about prescriptions. There are also lots of other ways in which your pharmacist can help you.

What treatment options are there?

Epilepsy is sometimes referred to as a long-term condition, as people often live with it for many years, or for life. Although generally epilepsy cannot be ‘cured’, for most people, seizures can be 'controlled' (stopped) so that epilepsy has little or no impact on their lives. So treatment is often about managing seizures in the long-term. 

Most people with epilepsy take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) to stop their seizures from happening. However, there are other treatment options for people whose seizures are not controlled by anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs).

Food you can find in the ketogenic diet

Ketogenic diet

The ketogenic diet is a treatment option for children and adults with epilepsy whose seizures are not controlled with AEDs. 

Vagus nerve stimulation

Vagus nerve stimulation

Information on Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy, which is a type of treatment for epilepsy.

Epilepsy surgery

Epilepsy surgery

Brain surgery or neurosurgery is one way of treating epilepsy. Certain criteria have to be met and tests have to be done to assess suitability. 

X-ray of brain

Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation therapy is a surgical treatment which aims to reduce seizures not controlled with medication, and where surgery to treat the cause of seizures is not possible.

Cannabis oil epilepsy

Cannabis oil for epilepsy

With talk in the media about the use of cannabis products to treat epilepsy, generating interest and confusion, we outline the different forms of cannabis, their legality and their safety.

Pen and paper

Your rights and choices

The Epilepsy charter explains the rights and services that a person with epilepsy can expect.

Patient receiving diagnosis

Your appointment

Information to help someone with epilepsy make the most of their medical appointments.

Yearly review

Yearly review

Everyone with epilepsy is recommended to have a structured review of their condition at least once a year.

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More on epilepsy medication

More information on epilepsy medication including emergency medication, latest news and taking your medication.